Judicial elections, democratic appointment (e.g., senate confirmation), and the Missouri Plan (a/k/a "merit selection")

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Tuesday, August 25, 2015

Partisan Battle to Appoint to Virginia Supreme Court

Virginia is one of only two states in which the legislature selects the supreme court. As noted earlier,   A Democratic governor recently filled a vacancy with someone (Justice Jane Marum Roush) the Republican legislature recently chose to replace.As the Richmond Times reports, "If the legislature remains in session, Roush would have to leave the court 30 days from Monday without legislative endorsement. If it remains adjourned, McAuliffe could appoint her to another interim term that would last until 30 days following the next session of the General Assembly.

Partisan Controversy on Oklahoma Judicial Nominating Commission

The Oklahoma Judicial Nominating Commission was accused of playing partisan politics, according to the Oklahoman. The Commission suggested only two candidates, both Democrats, for a judgeship even though required by law to submit three candidates. "The two candidates whose names were provided to the governor were Democrats, and the two who were eliminated were Republican, said Rep. Justin Wood, R-Shawnee. Commission leaders say their search produced only two qualified candidates, and party politics had nothing to do with it."

Sunday, August 16, 2015

Ohio Judicial Selection

Ohio's Chief Justice Maureen O'Connor advocates several changes to the state's judical elections, including holding them on odd years, and moving judicial candidates closer to the top of the ballot. She also supports what cleveland.com describes as "voter education" about judicial candidates, which "will take shape Sept. 1 with the launch of a website at judicialvotescount.org that will allow candidates to post detailed profile information -- albeit on a voluntary basis."

Friday, August 7, 2015

Virginia Supreme Court Selection

Virginia is one of only two states in which the legislature selects the state's highest court. As the Washington Post explains, "Judicial appointments generally are left to the legislature. But when it’s not in session, the governor may fill a vacancy." A Democratic governor filled a vacancy with someone the Republican legislature recently chose to replace.

Tuesday, July 7, 2015

Ted Cruz Wants Retention Elections for US Supreme Court

Senator Ted Cruz (R-Texas) proposes subjecting US Supreme Court justices to periodic retention elections, that is, referenda in which citizens choose yes or no whether to the keep the justice or create a vacancy, which would be filled in the usual manner.

This idea is sensibly criticized by George Will,

Friday, June 26, 2015

Nebraska Supreme Court Nominating Commission

Each of the seven seats on the Nebraska Supreme Court has its own judicial nominating commission. These commissions consist of nine members: a Supreme Court judge, four members selected by the bar, and four members appointed by the governor. According to Omaha.com one of four nominees for the Nebraska Supreme Court served as an alternate on a nominating commission and may be barred from the appointment to the court. "A little-known provision of the state constitution," says that "finalists for judgeships may not have served on a nominating commission for at least two years prior to their nomination to the bench."

Thursday, June 4, 2015

Judge Rated Low by Bar Wins GOP Primary: Surprising Pennsylvania Supreme Court Election?

In the Pennsylvania Supreme Court Republican primary a candidate, Judge Anne Covey,  rated “not recommended” by the Pennsylvania Bar Association defeated Justice Correale Stevens who the bar rated “highly recommended,” Malia Reddick points out. Previously, Covey called the judicial-evaluation process of the Pennsylvania Bar Association as "unethical, unprofessional, and less than forthright," according to The Philadelphia Inquirer.

Three seats on the court are open in the general elections this November. The GOP candidates (who each won the May primary) are Anne Covey, Michael George, and Judith Olson

The Philadelphia Inquirer discusses campaign contributions.

Saturday, May 23, 2015

Pennsylvania Supreme Court Elections After Scandals

Three seats on the Pennsylvania Supreme Court are up for election this year and the candidates were recently selected in Democratic and Republican primaries. Melissa Daniels writes "Two of the seats opened when justices stepped down amid scandals — Joan Orie Melvin of Marshall on the heels of corruption charges, and Seamus McCaffery of Philadelphia because of inappropriate emails unearthed on state servers." The third opening is a result of the mandatory retirement of former justice Ron Castile when he turned 70.

Friday, May 1, 2015

Tennessee Supreme Court Selection

Tennessee voters in November amended the Tennessee Constitution to a "federal model" system in which the legislature confirms the governor's nominee to the Tennessee Supreme Court. The new constitutional provision in Article VI, Section 3 reads:

Judges of the Supreme Court or any intermediate appellate court shall be appointed for a full term or to fill a vacancy by and at the discretion of the governor; shall be confirmed by the Legislature; and thereafter, shall be elected in a retention election by the qualified voters of the state. Confirmation by default occurs if the Legislature fails to reject an appointee within sixty calendar days of either the date of appointment, if made during the annual legislative session, or the convening date of the next annual legislative session, if made out of session. The Legislature is authorized to prescribe such provisions as may be necessary to carry out Sections two and three of this article.

Legislation necessary to carry out this system divides the Tennessee House and Senate, as explained by Bill Raftery. The Senate passed a bill in which the nominee would have win separate votes in each house of the legislature, while the House approved a bill in which confirmation would be a single vote that combines all members of the house and senate.

Sunday, April 26, 2015

North Carolina Judicial Elections May Become Partisan

Elections for North Carolina appellate court judgeships have been officially nonpartisan since 2004, but AP reports that Republicans are trying again to shift them back to partisan races. The North Carolina "House tentatively agreed Thursday to legislation to require state Supreme Court and Court of Appeals candidates run with their party affiliation on the ballots."

Monday, April 13, 2015

Personal and Ideological Clashes on the Wisconsin Supreme Court

The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel reports:

A day after voters approved changing the state constitution to allow members of the Wisconsin Supreme Court to elect their leader, Chief Justice Shirley Abrahamson on Wednesday sued the six other members of the court to hold onto her job.

Supporters of the measure — which passed 53% to 47% — had said it would help heal relations on a court that has been marked by personal and ideological clashes in recent years.

Abrahamson, the longest-serving justice in Wisconsin history, filed her lawsuit in federal court in Madison. In it, she contends she should be able to remain chief justice until her term on the court ends in July 2019.
Abrahamson is a liberal leading a court controlled by conservatives. Over the years, she has clashed, at times fiercely, with both her allies and opponents, and her adversaries saw the constitutional amendment as a way to sideline her.

According to a separate article in the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, State Supreme Court Justice Ann Walsh Bradley secured a third, 10-year term on the court, defeating challenger Judge James Daley who "attacked her as a liberal activist."

Friday, April 3, 2015

West Virginia Judicial Elections Drop Party Labels

Gov. Earl Ray Tomblin has signed House Bill 2010, which requires the elections of justices of the West Virginia Supreme Court, circuit court judges, family court judges and magistrates to be nonpartisan and by division.

Monday, March 30, 2015

NY Times Connects Kansas School Funding with Kansas Judicial Selection

Unfortunately, the Times ("Under the current system, the governor chooses from three nominees put forth by a nine-member committee that includes lawyers and appointees of the governor") does not say who selects those lawyers, which is the problem with the current Kansas Supreme Court selection process.

Former Chief Justice of Alabama "Disgusted" by What She Had to Do to Get Elected

Sue Bell Cobb writes in Politico "I never quite got over the feeling of being trapped inside a system whose very structure left me feeling disgusted."

Justice Cobb's article entitled "I Was Alabama’s Top Judge. I’m Ashamed by What I Had to Do to Get There: How money is ruining America’s courts" says

"In Alabama, would-be judges are allowed to ask for money directly. We can make calls not just to the usual friends and family but to lawyers who have appeared before us, lawyers who are likely to appear before us, officials with companies who may very well have interests before the court. And I did."

Justice Cobb: "When a judge asks a lawyer who appears in his or her court for a campaign check, it’s about as close as you can get to legalized extortion. Lawyers who appear in your court, whose cases are in your hands, are the ones most interested in giving. It’s human nature: Who would want to risk offending the judge presiding over your case by refusing to donate to her campaign? They almost never say no—even when they can’t afford it."

Bringing back memories of when I lived in Alabama, Justice Cobb mentions the notorious TV ad portraying the opposing judicial candidate as a skunk. I wrote about Alabama judicial elections, in  Money, Politics and Judicial Decisions

Unfortunately, Justice Cobb does not highlight the lawmaking role of state supreme court justices, and instead says they’re "supposed to apply the settled law against the facts and evidence of the case before their court." That sounds more like a trial court. The state supreme court has lots of discretion in making the law "settled" in one direction or another so lower courts can then apply it. It's that lawmaking role of supreme courts that justifies a democratic form of judicial selection, rather than what Justice Cobb calls "merit selection."

Monday, March 16, 2015

Progress for Bill to Reduce Secrecy of Kansas Supreme Court Selection Process

The Kansas Senate passed SB197 which would require a public list of which lawyers are eligible to vote for the supreme court nominating commission and which lawyers voted. It would also subject the commission to the Open Meetings Act.

For the Kansas Court of Appeals, SB 197 would require the governor to make public each applicant's name.